A limitation of research designs with elite athletes is to find sufficient participants to yield statistically significant differences between groups. Users with wide screen monitors can benefit from more content on every page. Global warming has been in and out as the “latest” hot topic for many years. Durkin and Dowling, urged caution with subjects not reasonably matched to those whom the equations were devised. However, this study demonstrated that using an indirect estimation method can lead to grossly inaccurate BSIPs. CitePeer Related Articles http:

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The images created were based on the coefficients of attenuation that were measured.

Image resolution of the Lunar Expert-XL. To extract mass data manually i.

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Space requirements of the seated operator. The hypothesis was based on the premise that the indirect method would only be accurate for subjects with similar anthropometric profiles to the population from which the method was developed.

Human Kinetics; Zatsiorsky V. Therefore, when dealing with elite level artce, research needs to focus on an individual athlete for an accurate assessment of performance or any effects of an intervention Kinugasa et al. Even though this was hypothesized, only the thigh segment showed a trend towards having significantly lower percentage errors for the normal subjects, when they were compared with the two groups of swimmers.

You will then have 1 Posts and 1 Core Posts! Estimating segment inertial properties: Data Processing Previous studies used the linear relationship between the attenuation coefficients of the high energy beams, and each was recorded in rectangular elements that formed the scan area matrix and the mass of a given phantom Durkin et al.

A model of every subject was created using the 3D coordinates of the markers obtained with the Artec 3D Scanner ratec. A series of one- sample t-tests was used to determine whether segment masses of the current participants were different from those found by Zatsiorsky et al.

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These markers were placed to appear outside the boundary of the body on the DXA output image. The second provided mass data for the tissue compartment TISSUEwhich consisted of extracellular fluids and solids, total body water, intracellular solids and fat St-Onge et al.

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Table 2 Glass marble naming and locations. The Z3 method uses a quasi-density value to compensate for differences between the actual segment volume and its cylindrical representation. Anthropometry from 3D scans had shown high validity and reproducibility Lu and Wang, Where M R and M M are the real mass value from the scanner and summing all pixel masses, and N is the number of subjects. By JB 22nd Nov, – Even arted I xx does not require mass and COM values for 1.200 calculation, it is physically related to those two inertial parameters.

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A light projector emitted a mesh of dots onto the body surface, and a video camera to capture images of the projected dots 3D frames. This position ensured that the anatomical sagittal plane was as close to parallel to the scan table as possible, and the subjects fitted within the cm wide scanning area. The recent advances in kinematic analysis systems have resulted in greater validity, reproducibility, and also flexibility with regard to the environment in which the assessment is aryec.

Coordinates of the elbow, wrist, knee and ankle joint centers were scabner, and the same points used to define those joint centers, also defined the segmentation plane perpendicular to the scanning plane. For instance, studies in Computer Fluid Dynamics CFD have explored how the external forces propulsive and drag are generated by the water medium as a result of the body kinematics underwater Bixler and Schloder, ; Lyttle and Keys, ; Marinho et al.


Therefore, kinetic analyses in sporting maneuvers that are typically three-dimensional e. The lower accuracy of the bone mineral mass seemed to result from inadequate threshold values used to create the binary images of the bone mineral images.

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An application in arrec analysis. Early BSIP estimations in living subjects used models developed from direct measurements from a few cadavers of elderly Caucasian males Chandler et al. Using DXA method, this study showed that elite swimmers recorded significantly different BSIPs than young adult Caucasian males, and elite male swimmers reported significantly different BSIPs than elite female swimmers.

Body segment inertial parameters, DXA, indirect estimation methods, swimming. As the code needed artex calculating the mass for each rectangular element was unavailable, the raw data were accessed via an ACSII code de-compiler Dowling, personal correspondence, Elite female swimmers have significantly lower segment masses than the other groups, and male swimmers had greater inertial measures of the trunk and upper arms than the others.

Computational Fluid Dynamics for Sport Simulation.